City in Maryland, United StatesFrederick, MarylandCity of FrederickBridge on Carroll CreekMotto( s): "The City of Clustered Spires" Area within the State of MarylandShow map of MarylandFrederick (the United States) Show map of the United StatesCoordinates: Collaborates: United States Founded1745Government MayorMichael O'Connor (D-MD) Board of AldermenKelly Russell (D-MD) Ben MacShane (D-MD) Derek Shackleford (D-MD) Donna Kuzemchak (D-MD) Roger Wilson (D-MD) Location City24.
28 km2) Land23. 95 sq mi (62. 02 km2) Water0. 10 sq mi (0. 26 km2) Elevation302 feet (92 m) Population City65,239 Estimate 72,244 Density3,016. 95/sq mi (1,164. 84/km2) Urban141,576 (US: 230th)UTC5 (EST) Summer (DST)UTC4 (EDT) 21701-21709301, 24024-30325GNIS feature ID0584497I-70, I-270, US 15, United States 40, United States 340, MD 80, MD 144, MD 355Website Frederick is a city in, and the county seat, of Frederick County, Maryland.
Frederick has actually long been an important crossroads, located at the crossway of a major northsouth Indian path and eastwest paths to the Chesapeake Bay, both at Baltimore and what became Washington, D.C. and across the Appalachian mountains to the Ohio River watershed. It belongs of the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Location, which belongs to a higher Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area.
Frederick is house to Frederick Municipal Airport (IATA: FDK), which accommodates general air travel, and to the county's largest employer U.S. Army's Fort Detrick bioscience/communications research installation. Found where Catoctin Mountain (the easternmost ridge of the Blue Ridge mountains) fulfills the rolling hills of the Piedmont area, the Frederick area became a crossroads even before European explorers and traders arrived.
This ended up being called the Monocacy Path or even the Great Indian Warpath, with some tourists continuing southward through the "Excellent Appalachian Valley" (Shenandoah Valley, and so on) to the western Piedmont in North Carolina, or taking a trip down other watersheds in Virginia towards the Chesapeake Bay, such as those of the Rappahannock, James and York Rivers.
Established before 1730, when the Indian trail ended up being a wagon road, Monocacy was abandoned before the American Revolutionary War, maybe due to the river's periodic flooding or hostilities predating the French and Indian War, or just Frederick's better location with simpler access to the Potomac River near its confluence with the Monocacy.
3 years earlier, All Saints Church had actually been established on a hilltop near a warehouse/trading post. Sources disagree as to which Frederick the town was named for, however the likeliest prospects are Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore (among the proprietors of Maryland), Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales, and Frederick "The Great" of Prussia.
Frederick Town (now Frederick) was made the county seat of Frederick County. The county initially encompassed the Appalachian mountains (locations further west being contested in between the colonies of Virginia and Pennsylvania till 1789). The existing town's very first home was developed by a young German Reformed schoolmaster from the Rhineland Palatinate called Johann Thomas Schley (died 1790), who led a celebration of immigrants (including his partner, Maria Von Winz) to the Maryland colony.
Schley's inhabitants likewise established a German Reformed Church (today referred to as Evangelical Reformed Church, and part of the UCC). Most likely the earliest house still standing in Frederick today is Schifferstadt, built in 1756 by German settler Joseph Brunner and now the Schifferstadt Architectural Museum. Schley's group was among the numerous Pennsylvania Dutch (ethnic Germans) (in addition to Scots-Irish and French and later Irish) who moved south and westward in the late-18th century.
Another important route continued along the Potomac River from near Frederick, to Hagerstown, where it divided. One branch crossed the Potomac River near Martinsburg, West Virginia and continued down into the Shenandoah valley. The other continued west to Cumberland, Maryland and eventually crossed the Appalachian Mountains into the watershed of the Ohio River.
Nevertheless, the British after the Pronouncement of 1763 limited that westward migration path till after the American Revolutionary War. Other westward migrants continued south from Frederick to Roanoke along the Great Wagon Roadway, crossing the Appalachians into Kentucky and Tennessee at the Cumberland Gap near the Virginia/North Carolina border. Other German inhabitants in Frederick were Evangelical Lutherans, led by Rev.
They moved their objective church from Monocacy to what became a large complex a few blocks further down Church Street from the Anglicans and the German Reformed Church. Methodist missionary Robert Strawbridge accepted an invitation to preach at Frederick town in 1770, and Francis Asbury showed up 2 years later on, both assisting to discovered a parish which became Calvary Methodist Church, worshiping in a log building from 1792 (although superseded by larger buildings in 1841, 1865, 1910 and 1930).
Jean DuBois was appointed in 1792, which ended up being St. John the Evangelist Church (integrated in 1800). To manage this crossroads during the American Transformation, the British garrisoned a German Hessian regiment in the town; the war (the stone, L-shaped "Hessian Barracks" still stand). All Saints Church, put up 1813, Principal Parish Church till 1855As the county seat for Western Maryland, Frederick not only was an important market town, but likewise the seat of justice.
Crucial legal representatives who practiced in Frederick consisted of John Hanson, Francis Scott Secret and Roger B. Taney. Church Street with All Saints and Reformed Church spires, FrederickFrederick was also known during the 19th century for its spiritual pluralism, with one of its primary roads, Church Street, hosting about a half lots significant churches.
That initial colonial structure was replaced in 1814 by a brick classical revival structure. It still stands today, although the primary worship space has actually become an even bigger brick gothic church joining it at the back and facing Frederick's Municipal government (so the parish stays the earliest Episcopal Church in western Maryland).
John the Evangelist, was built in 1800, then rebuilt in 1837 (throughout the street) one block north of Church Street on East Second Street, where it still stands together with a school and convent established by the Visitation Sisters. The stone Evangelical Lutheran Church of 1752 was likewise rebuilt and enlarged in 1825, then replaced by the present twin-spired structure in 1852.
It ended up being an African-American congregation in 1864, renamed Asbury Methodist Episcopal Church in 1870, and developed its existing building on All Saints Street in 1921. Together, these churches controlled the town, set versus the background of the very first ridge of the Appalachians, Catoctin Mountain. The abolitionist poet John Greenleaf Whittier later commemorated this view of Frederick in his poem to Barbara Fritchie: "The clustered spires of Frederick stand/ Green-walled by the hills of Maryland." When U.S.
Louis (ultimately developed to Vandalia, then the state capital of Illinois), the "National Pike" ran through Frederick along Patrick Street. (This later on became U.S. Path 40.) Frederick's Jacob Engelbrecht corresponded with Jefferson in 1824 (receiving a transcribed psalm in return), and kept a diary from 1819-1878 which stays a crucial first-hand account of 19th century life from its perspective on the National Road.
Church Street by a regional doctor to prevent the city from extending Record Street south through his land to fulfill West Patrick Street. Frederick likewise turned into one of the brand-new nation's leading mining counties in the early 19th century. It exported gold, copper, limestone, marble, iron and other minerals. As early as the American Transformation, Catoctin Heating system near Thurmont ended up being essential for iron production.
Frederick had easy access to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, which began operations in 1831 and continued hauling freight until 1924. Likewise in 1831, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) finished its Frederick Branch line from the Frederick (or Monocacy) Junction off the main Western Line from Baltimore to Harpers Ferry, Cumberland, and the Ohio River.
Louis by the 1850s. Confederate soldiers marching south on North Market Street throughout the Civil War Frederick ended up being Maryland's capital city briefly in 1861, as the legislature moved from Annapolis to vote on the secession question. President Lincoln apprehended a number of members, and the assembly was not able to assemble a quorum to vote on secession.
Slaves also escaped from or through Frederick (because Maryland was still a "slave state" although an unseceded border state) to sign up with the Union forces, work versus the Confederacy and seek freedom. During the Maryland campaigns, both Union and Confederate troops marched through the city. Frederick also hosted numerous health centers to nurse the injured from those fights, as relates in the National Museum of Civil War Medicine on East Patrick Street.
Union Major General Jesse L. Reno's IX Corps followed Jackson's males through the city a couple of days later on the way to the Fight of South Mountain, where Reno died. The websites of the fights are due west of the city along the National Road, west of Burkittsville. Confederate troops under Jackson and Walker unsuccessfully attempted to halt the Federal army's westward advance into the Cumberland Valley and towards Sharpsburg.
The 1889 memorial commemorating Major General Reno and the Union soldiers of his IX Corps is on Reno Monument Road west of Middletown, just below the top of Fox's Gap, as is a 1993 memorial to slain Confederate Brig. Gen. Samuel Garland Jr., and the North Carolina soldiers who held the line.
George McClellan after the Battle of South Mountain and the Battle of Antietam, provided a brief speech at what was then the B. & O. Railroad depot at the present intersection of East All Saints and South Market Streets. A plaque celebrates the speech (at what is today the Frederick Neighborhood Action Company, a Social Services office).
The Army of the Potomac camped around the Prospect Hall home for the several days as skirmishers pursued Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia prior to Gettysburg. A large granite rectangle-shaped monument made from one of the stones at the "Devil's Den" in Gettysburg to the east along the driveway commemorates the midnight change-of-command.
27 million in 2019 dollars) from people for not taking down the city on their way to Washington D.C. Union soldiers under Major General Lew Wallace combated an effective delaying action, in what ended up being the last significant Confederate advance at the Battle of Monocacy, likewise referred to as the "Battle that conserved Washington." The Monocacy National Battleground lies simply southeast of the city limitations, along the Monocacy River at the B.
Railway junction where two bridges cross the stream - an iron-truss bridge for the railway and a covered wooden bridge for the Frederick-Urbana-Georgetown Pike, which was the site of the main fight of July 1864. Some skirmishing occurred further northeast of town at the stone-arched "Jug Bridge" where the National Roadway crossed the Monocacy; and a weapons barrage took place along the National Roadway west of town near Red Man's Hill and Prospect Hall mansion as the Union troops retreated eastward.
While Gettysburg National Battlefield of 1863 lies roughly 35 miles (56 km) to the north-northeast. The reconstructed home of Barbara Fritchie stands on West Patrick Street, simply past Carroll Creek linear park. Fritchie, a substantial figure in Maryland history in her own right, is buried in Frederick's Mount Olivet Cemetery.
Roosevelt when they stopped here in 1941 on a vehicle trip to the presidential retreat, then called "Shangra-La" (now "Camp David") within the Catoctin Mountains near Thurmont. Admiral Winfield Scott Schley (18391911) was born at "Richfields", the mansion home of his father. He ended up being a crucial naval leader of the American fleet on board his flagship and heavy cruiser USS Baltimore together with Admiral William T.
Major Henry Schley's child, Dr. Fairfax Schley, contributed in setting up the Frederick County Agricultural Society and the Great Frederick Fair. Gilmer Schley worked as Mayor from 1919 to 1922, and the Schleys stayed one of the town's leading families into the late-20th century. Nathaniel Wilson Schley, a popular lender, and his wife Mary Margaret Schley helped arrange and raise funds for the yearly Great Frederick Fair, among the two largest farming fairs in the State.